The supplementation of a microdiet with crystalline indispensable amino-acids affects muscle growth and the expression pattern of related genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionCanada, P., Engrola, S., Mira, S., Teod´osio, R., Fernandes, J.M.O., Sousa, V. & Valente, L.M.P. (2016). The supplementation of a microdiet with crystalline indispensable amino-acids affects muscle growth and the expression pattern of related genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Aquaculture, 458, 158-169. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.03.010
The full expression of growth potential in fish larvae largely depends on an efficient protein utilisation, which requires that all the indispensable amino acids (IAA) are provided at an optimum ratio. The effect of supplementing a practical microdiet with encapsulated crystalline-AA to correct possible IAA deficiencies was evaluated in Senegalese sole larvae. Two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic microdiets were formulated and processed to have approximately the same ingredients and proximate composition. The control diet (CTRL) was based on protein sources commonly used in the aquafeed industry. In the supplemented diet (SUP) 8% of an encapsulated fish protein hydrolysate was replaced by crystalline-AA in order to increase the dietary IAA levels. The microdiets were delivered from mouth-opening upon a co-feeding regime until 51 days after hatching (DAH). The larvae capacity to utilise protein was evaluated using an in vivo method of controlled tube-feeding during relevant stages throughout development: pre-metamorphosis (13 DAH); metamorphosis climax (19 DAH) and metamorphosis completion (25 DAH). Somatic growth was monitored during the whole trial. A possible effect on the regulation of muscle growth was evaluated through muscle cellularity and the expression of related genes (myf5, myod2, myogenin, mrf4, myhc and mstn1) at metamorphosis climax (19 DAH) and at a juvenile stage (51 DAH). The SUP diet had a negative impact on larvae somatic growth after the metamorphosis, even though it had no effect on the development of Senegalese sole larvae capacity to retain protein. Instead, changes in somatic growth may reflect alterations on muscle growth regulation, since muscle cellularity suggested delayed muscle development in the SUP group at 51 DAH. Transcript levels of key genes regulating myogenesis changed between groups, during the metamorphosis climax and at the 51 DAH. The group fed the SUP diet had lower dnmt3b mRNA levels compared to the CTRL group. Further studies are needed to ascertain whether this would possibly lead to an overall DNA hypomethylation in skeletal muscle.