High-level biocidal products effectively eradicate pathogenic γ-proteobacteria biofilms from aquaculture facilities
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionAcosta, F., Montero, D., Izquierdo, M. & Galindo-Villegas, J. (2020). High-level biocidal products effectively eradicate pathogenic γ-proteobacteria biofilms from aquaculture facilities. Aquaculture, 532: 736004. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.736004
The use of effective biocides as disinfectants is essential in aquaculture facilities. However, while most biocides act effectively on free-living planktonic pathogens, they are seldom useful against biofilms. In this study, we evaluate the biocidal efficacy and antimicrobial specific contact time of three disinfectants, Virkon™Aquatic (VirA), peracetic acid (PerA), and hydrogen peroxide (HydP), on Vibrio anguillarum, V. harveyi, V. alginolyticus, and Photobacterium damselae subspecies piscicida against their both life phases. By using the minimum inhibitory, bactericidal, and eradication concentrations of disinfectants acting on the free-living planktonic state (MIC; MBC) and biofilms (MBIC; MBEC), we determined the in vitro susceptibility of each bacterial strain against three different individual concentrations of VirA, PerA, and HydP added at 1, 5, and 10 min intervals. PerA and VirA had the highest bactericidal efficacies against the free-living planktonic state and biofilm of all bacteria. Kinetically, PerA gave a positive result more quickly in both cases regardless of the strain in question, while the weakest HydP required longer than 10 min to act effectively. Moreover, we conducted a short in vivo safety trial by pouring the suggested MIC of each disinfectant into tanks containing juvenile Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Significant mortality after 24 h was observed pointing to the potential risk a mishap of these chemicals might cause to fish. Nevertheless, collectively, our results support the inclusion of biocides within biosecurity protocols in aquaculture facilities and highlight PerA as the most effective disinfectant for fighting against biofilms produced by V. anguillarum, V. harveyi, V. alginolyticus or P. damselae subsp. piscicida.