Plant-based diets induce transcriptomic changes in muscle of zebrafish and Atlantic salmon
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionDhanasiri, A., Johny, A., Xue, X., Berge, G. M., Bogevik, A. S., Rise, M. L., Fæste, C. K. & Fernandes, J. M. de O. (2020). Plant-based diets induce transcriptomic changes in muscle of zebrafish and Atlantic salmon. Frontiers in Genetics, 11: 575237. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2020.575237
With the expansion of the aquaculture industry in the last two decades, there has been a large increase in the use of plant ingredients in aquafeeds, which has created new challenges in fish growth, health and welfare. Fish muscle growth is an important trait that is strongly affected by diet, but our knowledge on the effect of plant protein-based diets on global gene expression in muscle is still scant. The present study evaluated nutrigenomic effects of the inclusion of proteins from pea, soy and wheat into aquafeeds, compared to a control diet with fishmeal as the main protein source using the zebrafish model by RNA-seq; these results were extended to an important aquaculture species by analyzing selected differentially expressed genes identified in the zebrafish model on on-growing Atlantic salmon fed with equivalent plant protein-based diets. Expression of selected Atlantic salmon paralogues of the zebrafish homologs was analyzed using paralogue-specific qPCR assays. Global gene expression changes in muscle of zebrafish fed with plant-based diets were moderate, with the highest changes observed in the soy diet-fed fish, and no change for the pea diet-fed fish compared to the control diet. Among the differentially expressed genes were mylpfb, hsp90aa1.1, col2a1a, and odc1, which are important in regulating muscle growth, maintaining muscle structure and function, and muscle tissue homeostasis. Furthermore, those genes and their paralogues were differentially expressed in Atlantic salmon fed with the equivalent percentage of soy or wheat protein containing diets. Some of these genes were similarly regulated in both species while others showed species-specific regulation. The present study expands our understanding on the molecular effects of plant ingredients in fish muscle. Ultimately, the knowledge gained would be of importance for the improved formulation of sustainable plant-based diets for the aquaculture industry.