Testing the transport-induced environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis : The role of air and railway transport
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionErdogan, S., Adedoyin, F. F., Bekun, F. V. & Sarkodie, S. A. (2020). Testing the transport-induced environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis: The role of air and railway transport. Journal of Air Transport Management, 69: 101935. doi: 10.1016/j.jairtraman.2020.101935
The airline and railway industry contribute immensely to economic development, however, its role in environmental pollution requires attention. Here, this study builds on the theoretical pedigree of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis to explore the contribution of the air and railway transportation sector and urbanization to the emission-growth argument. We utilized annual time-frequency data from 1995 to 2014 for a panel of top 10 air passenger carrier countries using robust panel estimators that control for cross-section dependence. The empirical analysis shows a positive significant relationship between emissions and economic growth, thus, economic growth is emission-embedded with limited green growth. The existence of the EKC phenomenon is affirmed for the investigated blocs — where economic growth is prioritized over environmental quality. Additional, while air transportation drives pollution, railway transportation and urbanization decline emission over the sampled period. The results underscore the need for clean and environmentally friendly energy sources for air sector operations.