Time-dependent transcriptome profile of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) and polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Nannochloropsis gaditana during nitrogen starvation
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionJanssen, J. H., Spoelder, J., Koehorst, J. J., Schaap, P. J., Wijffels, R. H. & Barbosa, M. J. (2020). Time-dependent transcriptome profile of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) and polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Nannochloropsis gaditana during nitrogen starvation. Journal of Applied Phycology, 32(2), 1153-1164. doi: 10.1007/s10811-019-02021-2
In this research, the gene expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism of the eustigmatophyte alga Nannochloropsis gaditana was measured by transcriptomic data. This microalga can be used as a source of triacylglycerol (TAG) and the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Insight in TAG and EPA production and regulation are needed to improve their productivity. Nitrogen starvation induces TAG accumulation in N. gaditana. Previous research showed that during nitrogen starvation, EPA was translocated from the polar lipids to TAG and de novo synthesized in N. gaditana. Therefore, the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid translocation and de novo TAG synthesis were measured. Furthermore, the genes involved in de novo EPA synthesis such as elongases and desaturases were studied. The expression levels were measured during the first hours of nitrogen starvation and the subsequent period of 14 days. One phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) gene involved in translocation of fatty acids from membrane lipids to TAG was upregulated. In addition, several lipases were upregulated, suggesting that these enzymes might be responsible for the translocation of EPA to TAG. Most desaturases and elongases involved in de novo EPA synthesis were downregulated during nitrogen starvation, except for Δ9 desaturase which was upregulated. This upregulation correlates with the increase in oleic acid. Due to the presence of many hypothetical genes, improvement in annotation is needed to increase our understanding of these pathways and their regulation.