Efficacy and toxicity of orally administrated anti-coccidial drugs for innovative treatments of Myxobolus sp. infection in Puntazzo puntazzo
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionAthanassopoulou, F., Karagouni, E., Dotsika, E., Ragias, V., Tavla, J., Christofilloyanis, P. & Vatsos, I.N. (2004). Efficacy and toxicity of orally administrated anti-coccidial drugs for innovative treatments of Myxobolus sp. infection in Puntazzo puntazzo. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 62(3), 217-226. doi: 10.3354/dao062217
This study tested drugs and therapeutic compounds to determine effective commercial treatment for fishes infected with myxosporeans. Two series of shore-based experiments and 1 field trial were performed. For the shore-based experiments we used Puntazzo puntazzo (ca. 20 g wt) with kidneys infected with Myxobolus sp. Initially, 6 different doses of Fumagillin, 2 doses of Toltrazuril, and 1 dose of Amprolium, ESB3 and Salinomycin were tested. In the second shore-based experiment, infected fish were treated with Origanum essential oils, Toltrazuril with propylene glycol, Amprolium, and a combination of Salinomycin 12% + Amprolium (SA). In the field trial, P. puntazzo (ca. 165 g) infected with the parasite were treated with SA, Origanum essential oils and Fumagillin. In all trials, the drugs were added to the feed and administered according to the selected regimen. Their efficacy was evaluated in terms of mortality (acceptable level was <3%), pathology and prevalence rate of Myxobolus sp. Lesions were observed only in fish treated with Fumagillin and Toltrazuril. Pathology due to treatment with Fumagillin was observed only at doses > 6 mg kg–1 body wt for 6 wk in the interstitial renal tissue, where slight inflammation arose. The highest dose tested (25 mg kg–1) also produced necrosis in the interstitial tissue, degeneration of the epithelial cells of the tubules and a reduction in melanomacrophage centre numbers. The SA combination proved the most effective treatment for Myxobolus sp. infection of P. puntazzo as (1) the therapeutic regimen and commercial product was not toxic and (2) a significant reduction occurred in the prevalence rate.