The distribution of benthic amphipod crustaceans in Indonesian seas
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionArfianti, T. & Costello, M. J. (2021). The distribution of benthic amphipod crustaceans in Indonesian seas. PeerJ, 9, Artikkel e12054. doi: 10.7717/peerj.12054
Amphipod crustaceans are an essential component of tropical marine biodiversity. However, their distribution and biogeography have not been analysed in one of the world’s largest tropical countries nested in the Coral Triangle, Indonesia. We collected and identified amphipod crustaceans from eight sites in Indonesian waters and combined the results with data from 32 additional sites in the literature. We analysed the geographic distribution of 147 benthic amphipod crustaceans using cluster analysis and the ‘Bioregions Infomaps’ neural network method of biogeographic discrimination. We found five groups of benthic amphipod crustaceans which show relationships with sampling methods, depth, and substrata. Neural network biogeographic analysis indicated there was only one biogeographic region that matched with the global amphipod regions and marine biogeographic realms defined for all marine taxa. There was no support for Wallaces or other lines being marine biogeographic boundaries in the region. Species richness was lower than expected considering the region is within the Coral Triangle. We hypothesise that this low richness might be due to the intense fish predation which may have limited amphipod diversification. The results indicated that habitat rather than biogeography determines amphipod distribution in Indonesia. Therefore, future research needs to sample more habitats, and consider habitat in conservation planning.