Assessment of risks to wildlife and animal welfare associated with Lodden, Sami traditional hunting of ducks in spring
Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Eldegard, Katrine; Kausrud, Kyrre; Sandercock, Brett; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Bryn, Anders; Geange, Sonya Rita; Bø-Granquist, Erik Georg; Hindar, Kjetil; Hole, Lars Robert; Järnegren, Johanna; Kirkendall, Lawrence R.; Nielsen, Anders; Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland; Velle, Gaute
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionYtrehus, B., Bustnes, J. O., Bårdsen, B-J., Eldegard, K., Kausrud, K., Sandercock, B., Berg, P. R., Bryn, A., Geange, S. R., Bø-Granquist, E. G., Hindar, K., Hole, L. R., Järnegren, J., Kirkendall, L. R., Nielsen, A., Nilsen, E. B. & Velle, G. (2022). Assessment of risks to wildlife and animal welfare associated with Lodden, Sami traditional hunting of ducks in spring. VKM Report. 2022, (2022:29), 9-96. Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM), Oslo, Norway.
Spring hunting for ducks (Lodden in Northern Sami) is part of the Sami hunting and trapping culture. In Norway, this traditional hunting has been permitted in Kautokeino Municipality in accordance with the exception provision in the Wildlife Act Section 15, with quotas for males of several duck species. However, hunting in the spring may be in conflict with the Nature Diversity Act's principle for species management, saying (quote from Section 15): “Unnecessary harm and suffering caused to animals occurring in the wild and their nests, lairs and burrows shall be avoided. Likewise, unnecessary pursuing of wildlife shall be avoided.” Furthermore, in accordance with international legislation and agreements, the Wildlife Act (Section 9) states that the hunting season should not be set to the nesting and breeding season for the species in question. The Norwegian Environment Agency (NEA) asked VKM to (1) assess risk and risk-reducing measures on biodiversity and animal welfare when conducting spring hunting of ducks. The terms of reference were additionally clarified by the NEA to include assessments of the risks associated with hunting quotas of up to 150, 300, and 500 male individuals, on the populations of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), velvet scoter (Melanitta fusca), common scoter (Melanitta nigra), long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis), and red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator). VKM was furthermore asked to (2) point out risk-reducing measures in scenarios with hunting bags corresponding to the mentioned quotas of all the six species. VKM, risk assessment, Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment, Norwegian Environment Agency, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), velvet scoter (Melanitta fusca), common scoter (Melanitta nigra), long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis), red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator), spring hunting, Lodden
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