Self-transcendence among adults 65 years and older : A meta-analysis
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionHaugan, G., Demirci, A. D., Kabukcuoglu, K., & Aune, I. (2021). Self-transcendence among adults 65 years and older: A meta-analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 36(1), 3-15. doi: 10.1111/scs.12959
Introduction Self-transcendence is a human capacity for wellbeing by expanding one's personal boundaries and may act as a health-promoting resource among adults ≥65 years. Therefore, the objectives of this meta-analysis were to determine the mean score of self-transcendence based on place of residence and gender, and to evaluate the correlations of self-transcendence with meaning, sense of coherence, resilience and depression. Methods Based on inclusion criteria, 13 studies were included. Orwin Safe N and Egger's test assessed publication bias. The mean score of self-transcendence and the correlation coefficients of the selected variables were estimated by random effects models. Results The self-transcendence mean score (n = 1634) was low (M = 43.6) and a bit lower among those staying in care facilities (M = 42.8), but did not vary significantly across gender. The correlation coefficients were self-transcendence_depression (r = −0.40), self-transcendence_meaning-in-life (r = 0.53), self-transcendence_resilience (r = 0.50) and self-transcendence_sense of coherence (r = 0.28). The correlation coefficients, except for meaning-in-life, were homogeneous. Conclusion In a health-promoting perspective, the concept of self-transcendence can help to better understand wellbeing among older individuals and provide guidance for health professionals in facilitating wellbeing and health. The concept and theory of self-transcendence can inspire health professionals in realising new health-promoting approaches to support older individuals in maintaining health, wellbeing and independency.