A study of the experiences of domestic child labour among primary school children whose parents are in the formal or informal sector : the case of Itigi Ward in Manyoni district - Singida region in Tanzania
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The study aimed at developing an understanding of the attitudes and experiences of child labour among the primary school children whose parents were in the formal or informal sectors. It was hypothesized that the rights of the children were being abrogated and abused through domestic and field labour and that children whose parents were in the formal or informal sectors had different attitude and experiences toward the labour they performed. Also, it was thought that Child labour might have different implications on the rights of the child. In Africa and Tanzania in particular child labour in all its forms is a burning issue requiring attention for stakeholders. However, the attitudes of the children themselves towards such Worst Forms of Child Labour- (WFCL) which they engage with have rarely been discussed. This study has employed qualitative methods of research for collecting and analyzing the data. Three categories were identified during data analyses which were useful for examining the attitudes of the children towards the labour they performed. These are: first, Institutionalization this embraces all the things that are related to Socialization and Inculcation. That is the whole range of child development and care within and outside the family institution. Also, the agro-pastoralist lifestyle subcategory came under the category of institutionalization to entail the child labour phenomenon. Secondly, Welfare coping strategies which entails the attitudes of the primary school children in relation to family size, locality and the economy of the household; thirdly, Modernization and development in which the consideration of the attitudes based on the desire to acquire things and participate in modern social affairs, peer influences, and the emerging urban values. It was found that the attitudes of the primary school children towards the WFL they performed were embedded within the social institutions necessary for the welfare of the family, household and the community. Itigi being among the emerging urban areas was found to be hit by the forces of modernization and development which were also realized to have negative impact and implication not only on the attitudes of the children but also on their own rights. In the course of development in the Tanzanian society, the processes of urbanization and modernization were reported to be the main factors for children to engage in WFCL leading to self abusing of their rights including that of accessing and getting formal education. A combination of factors including poverty, ignorance, the diminishing role of the extended family and many others, all resulting from the urbanization processes taking place in the area, were reported to contribute to the abrogation of the rights of the children leaving them with the WFCL as their last resort for their amenities. There was a need to empower parents and families (kin, friends and neighbors) at large. These are the frontier for the realization of the basic needs of children and hence, have the primary responsibility to stop them from doing abusive domestic chores and heavy and disastrous field activities. Social workers should find ways of combining the emerging categories so as to help solving the persisting problem of Child Labour.
Mastergradsoppgave i "Comparative social work" - Høgskolen i Bodø, 2007