Effect of isolated and combined ingestion of caffeine and citrulline malate on resistance exercise and jumping performance : a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionHaugen, M. E., Vårvik, F. T., Grgic, J., Studsrud, H., Austheim, E., Zimmermann, E. M., Falch, H. N., Larsen, S. van den Tillaar, R., & Bjørnsen, T. (2023). Effect of isolated and combined ingestion of caffeine and citrulline malate on resistance exercise and jumping performance: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. European Journal of Nutrition, 62(7), 2963-2975. doi: 10.1007/s00394-023-03212-x
Purpose The aim of this study was to explore the isolated and combined efects of cafeine and citrulline malate (CitMal) on jumping performance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and pain perception in resistance-trained participants. Methods Using a randomized and double-blind study design, 35 resistance-trained males (n=18) and females (n=17) completed four testing sessions following the ingestion of isolated cafeine (5 mg/kg), isolated CitMal (12 g), combined doses of cafeine and CitMal, and placebo. Supplements were ingested 60 min before performing a countermovement jump (CMJ) test (outcomes included jump height, rate of force development, peak force, and peak power), one-repetition maximum (1RM) squat and bench press, and repetitions to muscular failure in the squat and bench press with 60% of 1RM. Pain perception was evaluated following the repetitions to failure tests. The study was registered at ISRCTN (registration number: ISRCTN11694009). Results Compared to the placebo condition, isolated cafeine ingestion and co-ingestion of cafeine and CitMal signifcantly enhanced strength in 1RM bench press (Cohen’s d: 0.05–0.06; 2.5–2.7%), muscular endurance in the squat (d: 0.46–0.58; 18.6–18.7%) and bench press (d: 0.48–0.64; 9.3–9.5%). However, there was no signifcant diference between isolated cafeine ingestion and cafeine co-ingested with CitMal, and isolated CitMal supplementation did not have an ergogenic efect in any outcome. No main efect of condition was found in the analysis for CMJ-derived variables, 1RM squat and pain perception. Conclusion Cafeine ingestion appears to be ergogenic for muscular strength and muscular endurance, while adding CitMal does not seem to further enhance these efects.